suetanvil / simple-future

Ruby gem providing simple process-level concurrency

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SimpleFuture: Simple, Process-based Concurrency

SimpleFuture is a Ruby module that gives you pretty good concurrency without a lot of work. It doesn't use threads and so will avoid their common pitfalls as well working on Rubies that don't support them.

It is a simple implementation of Future construct.


Basic idea

Suppose you need to do a bunch of long-running things concurrently (e.g. transcode a bunch of videos) and you don't want to have to deal with threads.

The easy thing to do is fork a subprocess for each item and then use Marshal and IO.pipe to retrieve the result(s).

That's pretty much what SimpleFuture does for you. You pass it a block and it runs it in a forked child and gives you back the result when it's ready. And as a bonus, it will limit the number of children it creates at one time, so you don't have to.

Those videos, for example

So let's say you're transcoding a bunch of (legally obtained) video files:

for vid in Dir.glob('*.mp4')
  run_transcode(vid, "../transcoded/") or 
    puts "Error transcoding #{vid}"

This is nice and simple, but it isn't taking advantage of the zillions of cores you have on your fancy modern workstation. So you use SimpleFuture:

for vid in Dir.glob('*.mp4') { run_transcode(vid, "../transcoded/") }


And this will do what you want. In particular, it limits itself to one process per CPU core so you don't thrash your system. (You can change this limit via SimpleFuture.max_tasks.)

Wait for it

Notice that we end the script with wait_for_all. This is because each SimpleFuture needs to have its wait method called at some point. This is what wait_for_all does. ( will also sometimes call an existing instance's wait but you can't depend on that.)

Since wait blocks until the child process finishes, so will wait_for_all. If you don't like that, you can also use all_done?; this won't block so you can do other stuff while waiting:

while !SimpleFuture.all_done?
    puts "Waiting for child processes to finish."
    sleep 1

By the way, it's harmless to call wait_for_all if nothing is running so it's often good practice to just call it before quitting.

I need answers

But let's say that transcode() also returns an important result such as the compression ratio and you want to know the average. This means that you need to get a result back from the child process. Fortunately, SimpleFuture handles this.

First, we need to keep all of the SimpleFuture objects:

futures = []
for vid in Dir.glob('*.mp4')
    futures.push( { run_transcode(vid, "../transcoded/") })

Next, we use map to extract the results:

ratios ={|f| f.value}

And then compute the average:

sum = ratios.inject(0.0, :+)
puts "Average compression ratio: #{sum / ratios.size}" if
    ratios.size > 0

Note that we're not calling wait_for_all here. This is because value already calls wait and since it gets called on each SimpleFuture, we know for sure that all child processes have been cleaned up.

Also, it may be tempting to merge the loop and the map above but this is a bad idea:

ratios = []
for vid in Dir.glob('*.mp4')
    f = { run_transcode(vid, "../transcoded/") }
    ratios.push(f.wait)     # BAD IDEA! DON'T DO THIS!

Because wait stops until the child process finishes, you're effectively going back to single-threaded processing. You need to create a collection of SimpleFutures first and then wait on them.


SimpleFuture tries to only throw exceptions in two cases: something is wrong with your code or something has gone wrong beyond its control (e.g. Ruby crashed). In either case, the right thing at this point is usually to quit. (If that's not an option, the rubydocs will give you the gory details on what throws what.)

Generally, you should:

  1. Never quit the child process; always exit the block with a (simple, Marshal-compatible) value.
  2. Avoid throwing exceptions out of the child block unless it's to avoid breaking rule 1.

Also, you can probably use low-level systems methods to trick SimpleFuture into doing the wrong thing. Don't do that.


SimpleFuture is available as a gem:

$ [sudo] gem install simple-future

Source code is available at GitHub:

$ git clone
$ cd simple-future
$ rake

To build, you need to install rake, rspec and yard.

It should work on Ruby 2.2.0 or later, provided your Ruby/OS combination supports Process.fork(). To confirm this, evaluate

Process.respond_to?(:fork)      # true

If it returns true, you're good to go. If not, the gem will noisily fail.

Bugs and Quirks will block if there are too many child processes. In this case, it waits for the oldest process to finish, even if other processes have finished in the meantime.

The unit tests use sleep to give child processes a relatively predictable execution times and test based on that. This means there's a chance that the tests can fail on a sufficiently slow or overloaded system. (It's unlikely that this can happen in real life, though.)


Ruby gem providing simple process-level concurrency

License:MIT License


Language:Ruby 100.0%