HenryWoodOTC / qebrain

machine translation and quality estimation

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qebrain / "Bilingual Expert" Can Find Translation Errors

This repository provides an unofficial released implementation of paper "Bilingual Expert" Can Find Translation Errors. Since the implementation details, data preprocessing, and other possibilities, it is not guaranteed to reproduce the results in WMT 2018 QE task.


  1. TensorFlow 1.12 pip install tensorflow-gpu
  2. OpenNMT-tf 1.15 pip install OpenNMT-tf We used the following OpenNMT-tf APIs, so the latest OpenNMT-tf may also work if they are not changed. OpenNMT-tf also claimed backward compatibility guarantees.
    • encoders.self_attention_encoder.SelfAttentionEncoder
    • layers.position.SinusoidalPositionEncoder
    • decoders.self_attention_decoder.SelfAttentionDecoder
    • utils.losses.cross_entropy_sequence_loss
    • encoders.BidirectionalRNNEncoder
    • layers.ConcatReducer

Basic Usage

  1. Download the parallel datasets from WMT website.
  2. Preprocessing including tokenization, lowercasing, and vocabulary files.
  3. The parallel data should be put into foler data/para (four emtpty files for representative purpose), and the example vocab files are in folder data/vocab.
  4. Run ./expert_train.sh to train bilingual expert model, and due to the large dataset, we provide the multi GPU implementation.
  5. Download the QE dataset. An example dataset of sentence level De-En QE task has been downloaded and preprocessed in folder data/qe, including human features (If no human feature is prepared, set the argument --use_hf=False).
  6. Run ./qe_train.sh to train the quality estimation model, and due to the small dataset, we only provide the single GPU implementation.
  7. Run ./qe_infer.sh to make the inference on dataset without labels.


If you use this code for your research, please cite our papers.

  title={" Bilingual Expert" Can Find Translation Errors},
  author={Fan, Kai and Li, Bo and Zhou, Fengming and Wang, Jiayi},
  journal={arXiv preprint arXiv:1807.09433},

  title={Alibaba Submission for WMT18 Quality Estimation Task},
  author={Wang, Jiayi and Fan, Kai and Li, Bo and Zhou, Fengming and Chen, Boxing and Shi, Yangbin and Si, Luo},
  booktitle={Proceedings of the Third Conference on Machine Translation: Shared Task Papers},


Some of the utility functions are referred from TensorFlow NMT.


machine translation and quality estimation

License:BSD 2-Clause "Simplified" License


Language:Python 98.3%Language:Shell 1.7%