rongfengyu / dpvs

DPVS is a high performance Layer-4 load balancer based on DPDK.

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DPVS is a high performance Layer-4 load balancer based on DPDK. It's derived from Linux Virtual Server LVS and its modification alibaba/LVS.

the name DPVS comes from "DPDK-LVS".

Several techniques are applied for high performance:

  • Kernel by-pass (user space implementation)
  • Share-nothing, per-CPU for key data (Lockless)
  • RX Steering and CPU affinity (avoid context switch)
  • Batching TX/RX
  • Zero Copy (avoid packet copy and syscalls).
  • Polling instead of interrupt.
  • lockless message for high performance ICP.
  • other techs enhanced by DPDK.

Major features of DPVS including:

  • L4 Load Balancer, including FNAT, DR mode, etc.
  • Different schedule algorithm like RR, WLC, WRR, etc.
  • User-space Lite IP stack (IPv4, Routing, ARP, ICMP ...).
  • SNAT mode for Internet access from internal network.
  • Support KNI, VLAN, Bonding for different IDC environment.
  • Security aspect, support TCP syn-proxy, Conn-Limit, black-list.
  • QoS: Traffic Control.

DPVS feature modules are illustrated as following picture.


Quick Start

Test Environment

This quick start is tested with the environment below.

  • Linux Distribution: CentOS 7.2
  • Kernel: 3.10.0-327.el7.x86_64
  • CPU: Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E5-2650 v3 @ 2.30GHz
  • NIC: Intel Corporation Ethernet Controller 10-Gigabit X540-AT2 (rev 03)
  • Memory: 64G with two NUMA node.
  • GCC: gcc version 4.8.5 20150623 (Red Hat 4.8.5-4)

Other environment should also OK if DPDK works, pls check for more info.

Clone DPVS

$ git clone
$ cd dpvs

Well, let's start from DPDK then.

DPDK setup.

Currently, dpdk-stable-17.05.2 is used for DPVS.

You can skip this section if experienced with DPDK, and refer the link for details.

$ wget   # download from if link failed.
$ tar vxf dpdk-17.05.2.tar.xz

There's a patch for DPDK kni driver for hardware multicast, apply it if needed (for example, launch ospfd on kni device).

assuming we are in DPVS root dir and dpdk-stable-17.05.2 is under it, pls note it's not mandatory, just for convenience.

$ cd <path-of-dpvs>
$ cp patch/dpdk-stable-17.05.2/0001-PATCH-kni-use-netlink-event-for-multicast-driver-par.patch dpdk-stable-17.05.2/
$ cd dpdk-stable-17.05.2/
$ patch -p 1 < 0001-PATCH-kni-use-netlink-event-for-multicast-driver-par.patch

Now build DPDK and export RTE_SDK env variable for DPDK app (DPVS).

$ cd dpdk-stable-17.05.2/
$ make config T=x86_64-native-linuxapp-gcc
Configuration done
$ make # or make -j40 to save time, where 40 is the cpu core number.
$ export RTE_SDK=$PWD

In our tutorial, RTE_TARGET is not set, the value is "build" by default, thus DPDK libs and header files can be found in dpdk-stable-17.05.2/build.

Now to set up DPDK hugepage, our test environment is NUMA system. For single-node system pls refer the link.

$ # for NUMA machine
$ echo 8192 > /sys/devices/system/node/node0/hugepages/hugepages-2048kB/nr_hugepages
$ echo 8192 > /sys/devices/system/node/node1/hugepages/hugepages-2048kB/nr_hugepages

$ mkdir /mnt/huge
$ mount -t hugetlbfs nodev /mnt/huge

Install Kernel modules and bind NIC with igb_uio driver. Quick start uses only one NIC, normally we use 2 for Full-NAT cluster, even 4 for bonding mode. Assuming eth0 will be used for DPVS/DPDK, and another standalone Linux NIC for debug, for example, eth1.

$ modprobe uio
$ cd dpdk-stable-17.05.2

$ insmod build/kmod/igb_uio.ko
$ insmod build/kmod/rte_kni.ko

$ ./usertools/ --status
$ ifconfig eth0 down  # assuming eth0 is 0000:06:00.0
$ ./usertools/ -b igb_uio 0000:06:00.0 -u can be used to unbind driver and switch it back to Linux driver like ixgbe. You can also use lspci or ethtool -i eth0 to check the NIC PCI bus-id. Pls see DPDK site for details.

Build DPVS

It's simple, just set RTE_SDK and build it.

$ cd dpdk-stable-17.05.2/
$ export RTE_SDK=$PWD
$ cd <path-of-dpvs>

$ make # or "make -j40" to speed up.
$ make install

may need install dependencies, like openssl, popt and numactl, e.g., yum install popt-devel (CentOS).

Output files are installed to dpvs/bin.

$ ls bin/
dpip  dpvs  ipvsadm  keepalived
  • dpvs is the main program.
  • dpip is the tool to set IP address, route, vlan, neigh etc.
  • ipvsadm and keepalived come from LVS, both are modified.

Launch DPVS

Now, dpvs.conf must be put at /etc/dpvs.conf, just copy it from conf/dpvs.conf.single-nic.sample.

$ cp conf/dpvs.conf.single-nic.sample /etc/dpvs.conf

and start DPVS,

$ cd <path-of-dpvs>/bin
$ ./dpvs &

Check if it's get started ?

$ ./dpip link show
1: dpdk0: socket 0 mtu 1500 rx-queue 8 tx-queue 8
    UP 10000 Mbps full-duplex fixed-nego promisc-off

If you see this message. Well done, DPVS is working with NIC dpdk0!

Don't worry if you see this error,

EAL: Error - exiting with code: 1
  Cause: ports in DPDK RTE (2) != ports in dpvs.conf(1)

it means the NIC used by DPVS is not match /etc/dpvs.conf. Pls use dpdk-devbind to adjust the NIC number or modify dpvs.conf. We'll improve this part to make DPVS more "clever" to avoid modify config file when NIC count is not match.

Test Full-NAT Load Balancer

The test topology looks like,


Set VIP and Local IP (LIP, needed by Full-NAT mode) on DPVS. Let's put commands into You do some check by ./ipvsadm -ln, ./dpip addr show.

$ cat

./dpip addr add ${VIP}/24 dev dpdk0
./ipvsadm -A -t ${VIP}:80 -s rr
./ipvsadm -a -t ${VIP}:80 -r ${RS} -b

./ipvsadm --add-laddr -z ${LIP} -t -F dpdk0

$ ./

Access VIP from Client, it looks good!

client $ curl
Your ip:port :

Configure Tutorial

More configure examples can be found in the Tutorial Document. Including,

  • WAN-to-LAN Full-NAT reverse proxy.
  • Direct Route (DR) mode.
  • Master/Backup model (keepalived).
  • OSPF/ECMP cluster model.
  • SNAT mode for Internet access from internal network.
  • Virtual Devices (Bonding, VLAN, kni)
  • ... ...

Performance Test

Our test shows the forwarding speed (pps) of DPVS is several times than LVS and as good as Google's Maglev.



Pls see the License file.

Contact Us

DPVS is developing by iQiYi QLB team since April 2016 and now open-sourced. It's already widely used in iQiYi IDC for L4 load balancer and SNAT clusters, and we plan to replace all our LVS clusters with DPVS. We are very happy that more people can get involved in this project. Welcome to try, report issues and submit pull requests. And pls feel free to contact us through Github or Email.

  • github:
  • email: qlb-devel # (pls remove the white-spaces and replace # with @).


DPVS is a high performance Layer-4 load balancer based on DPDK.



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