Web Skills is a visual overview of useful skills to learn as a web developer. Go to https://andreasbm.github.io/web-skills to check out the visual overview or scroll through this readme to get the overview as a list. If you like the project you are very welcome to become a stargazer
📖 Table of Contents
➤ Table of Contents
- ➤ FAQ
- ➤ Fundamentals
- Best Practices
- Box Model
- Responsive Design
- CSS Variables
- Best Practices
- Template Literals
- Web Animations
- Best Practices
- The Browser
- Browser Engines
- The Internet
- ➤ Accessibility
- ➤ Web Components
- ➤ Progressive Webapps
- Service Workers
- Web App manifest
- Add to homescreen
- Pointer Events
- Loading Performance
- App shell
- Render-Blocking Resources
- Performance metrics
- Lazy Loading
- Critical Request Chains
- Tree shaking
- PRPL Pattern
- Resource Prioritization
- Rendering Performance
- Event loop
- RAIL Model
- Critical Rendering Path
- The Pixel Pipeline
- CSS Containment
- Web Workers
- Browser Sandbox
- Content Security Policy
- Performance budgets
- Chrome DevTools
- ➤ Build tools
- ➤ Frameworks & Libraries
- ➤ Testing
- Testing Methodologies
- Continuous integration
- A/B Testing
- Test Runners
- Best Practices
- ➤ Architecture & paradigms
- ➤ Team Collaboration
- ➤ Design & UX
- ➤ The Modern Web
- Speech Synthesis
- Web Sockets
- Device orientation & motion
- Variable Fonts
- Payment Request API
- Web Audio
- Web Assembly
- Performance API
- Gamepad API
- Speech Recognition
- Interaction Media Queries
- Browser Extensions
- Pointer Lock API
- Picture In Picture
- Project Fugu
- Web Authentication API
- Native File System
- Shape Detection
- Web Bluetooth
- Web USB
- Web XR
- Network Information API
- ➤ Algorithms & Data structures
- Data structures
- Queues & Stacks
- Hash Tables
- Linked Lists
- Time complexity
- Space Complexity
- ➤ Databases & Servers
- Relational Databases
- Non-relational Databases
- Data Modelling
- Data Integrity
- Architectural Models
- Request-Reply Protocol
- REST API
- ➤ Contributors
- ➤ License
What is Web Skills?
Web Skills is a visual overview of useful skills to learn as a web developer. It is useful for people who just started learning about web development and for people who have been in the field for years and want to learn new things. As a beginner, I would encourage you not to see this website as the definitive list of what you need to know but as an example of what you can learn and where you can start. The skills are arranged in chronological order based on what learning path I recommend you to take but feel free to jump around freely.
How did you choose the skills?
The skills are derived from a combination of 10 years of experience, a bachelor in software engineering and what I personally find to be the most useful to know on a day-to-day basis. Therefore, you'll notice that it's missing a lot of things. For example, I am not a PHP developer - because of this, PHP is not included. If you were a PHP developer, this overview would probably look a lot different.
How can I support you?
I am spending my spare time building Web Skills for free because I want to help people get into web development. My motivation comes from people finding Web Skills useful, so if you like the project feel free to support me in any way you like! For example, you are more than welcome to become a stargazer, share Web Skills with your friends and followers or create blog articles linking to Web Skills. If you want to, it will absolutely make my day if you support me with a cup of coffee! <3
How can I get involved?
You are welcome to get involved in any way you like. If you want to, you can go to the issues page and help me fix the spelling, fix issues or suggest some new features. Any involvement is highly appreciated!
How can I keep track of what skills I know?
If you scroll to the bottom of the page, you will find a button that says "Sign in with Google". If you click this button and sign in, you will be able to mark skills as completed.
I am overwhelmed! Help me!
I totally understand if you are a bit overwhelmed by the amount of skills on the page – but I can assure you that this overview includes much, much more than most people will ever need to know. My main goal is to provide a visual overview of web development and make people hungry for learning more. One of the things I absolute love about being a developer is learning new skills. I think it is amazing to be in a field where you can do what you do for a lifetime and still learn something new! People cannot be an expert in every skill on this page so try to find what excites you the most and become really good at that.
Why haven't you included XYZ Technology?
The skills are based on what I personally find to be the most useful on a day-to-day basis. If you think something really important is missing, you can always suggest it on the issues page.
What does the "experimental" banner mean?
When a skill is described as experimental, it means that the technology is immature and currently in the process of being added to the Web platform (or considered for addition). Think carefully before you start using experimental technology in any kind of production project. The definition used in Web Skills is based on the excellent definition used on MDN. You are very welcome to open an issue if you see a skill you believe should be marked as "experimental" or have the banner removed.
How can I get in contact with you?
Learn the basics of HTML and get comfortable with it's syntax and main concepts.
Get familiar with the basic HTML tags
- MDN - HTML elements reference
- Tutorialspoint - Basic HTML tags
- Elated - First 10 HTML tags
- W3Schools - HTML tags
- W3CTech - Periodic Table Of The HTML5 Elements
Learn how to design efficient forms, validating them effectively and keeping the user informed along the way.
Learn how to make your content search-friendly.
Learn how to structure your HTML in a way that provides a rich experience when sharing it online.
- Google Web - Social Discovery
- Google Search - Search Features
- Google Search - Structured Data
- web.dev - Easily discoverable
Learn how to work with SVG files to make graphics look crisp across all screen resolutions.
Learn the best practices of writing HTML.
Learn the basics of CSS and get comfortable with it's syntax and main concepts.
- MDN - CSS Basics
- W3Schools - CSS Tutorial
- Supercharged - CSS Selectors
- MDN - CSS first steps
- MDN - CSS building blocks
- MDN - CSS values and units
- MDN - CSS Syntax
Learn about CSS selectors and how to effeciently target DOM elements.
- MDN - CSS selectors
- MDN - All selectors
- CSS Tricks - Child and Sibling Selectors
- CSS Tricks - All Selectors
- W3Schools - CSS Combinators
Learn what specificity means and how to use it when writing CSS.
- MDN - Specificity
- MDN - Cascade and inheritance
- dev.to - CSS Specificity
- Specificity Calculator
- W3Schools - CSS Specificity
Learn how to use pseudo selectors.
- MDN - Pseudo-classes
- CSS Tricks - Meet the Pseudo Class Selectors
- When do the :hover, :focus, and :active pseudo-classes apply?
- W3Schools - CSS Pseudo-elements
- W3Schools - CSS Pseudo-classes
Learn what the CSS box model means.
- MDN - Introduction to the CSS basic box model
- MDN - The box model
- CSS Tricks - Inheriting box-sizing
Learn about margin collapsing.
- MDN - Mastering margin collapsing
- Margin Collapse in CSS: What, Why, and How
- CSS Tricks - What You Should Know About Collapsing Margins
- What's the Deal with Collapsible Margins?
- What’s the Deal with Margin Collapse?
Learn the different ways you can define colors in CSS.
Learn how to use the CSS calc function.
Learn the different layout types for web.
- Chrome Dev - Basic Layout
- W3Schools - CSS Website Layout
- MDN - Document and website structure
- MDN - CSS layout
Learn how to create layouts using flexbox.
Learn how to create layouts using CSS Grid.
Learn the different ways to transform elements through CSS.
Learn how to animate elements through CSS using keyframes.
Learn how to make your website responsive so it works across different screen sizes.
- MDN - Responsive design
- Responsive Web Design Fundamentals by Google
- Google Dev - Responsive Design
- Google Dev - UX Patterns
- Google Dev - Responsive Content
- Codelabs - Responsive Design
Learn how use media queries to build responsive layout.
- CSS Tricks - CSS Media Queries & Using Available Space
- MDN - Using media queries
- MDN - Using Media Queries for Accessibility
Learn how to use relative units for properties such as font sizes and spacing.
- MDN - Sizing items in CSS
- MDN - CSS values and units
- The CSS Workshop - Relative Units
- CSS Tricks - Fun with Viewport Units
- dev.to - 15 CSS Relative units
Learn how to make images responsive, always showing the best possible version for the screen size.
Learn how to define and use CSS variables.
- MDN - Using CSS custom properties
- Google Devs - CSS Variables: Why Should You Care?
- dev.to - CSS Quickies: CSS Variables
- CSS Variables explained with 5 examples
Learn the best practices of writing CSS.
Learn how the spread syntax can help you when working with arrays.
- MDN - Spread syntax
- Freecodecamp - An introduction to Spread syntax
- Object rest and spread properties
Learn how destructuring can help you when working with objects.
- MDN - Destructuring assignment
- MDN - ES6 In Depth: Destructuring
Learn how the HTML is represented as objects that comprise the structure and content of a document.
Learn how to dispatch and listen for events.
- MDN - Introduction to events
- MDN - Creating and triggering events
- Freecodecamp - A simplified explanation of event propagation
- MDN - addEventListener()
- MDN - removeEventListener(
- Event order
Learn how to create and use objects.
- MDN - Working with objects
- MDN - this
- MDN - bind()
- MDN - new operator
- MDN - new.target
- Data Structures: Objects and Arrays
Learn how to extend objects and functions through its prototype.
Learn how to define and use classes. Get somewhat comfortable with some of the object oriented concepts such as inheritence and encapsulation.
Learn how to use regex to extract information from strings.
Learn how template literals and tagged templates and help you manipulate strings.
- MDN - Template literals
- MDN - ES6 In Depth: Template strings
- Google Devs - Getting Literal With ES6 Template Strings
Learn how to use promises and what asynchronous code means.
- MDN - Promise
Learn how to use callbacks and why they are not always a good idea.
Learn how to use the async and await keywords to make it easier to write asynchronous code.
Learn how to use the fetch API to fetch data.
- Google Devs - Introduction to fetch
- Google Devs - Networking
- Freecodecamp - Fetch practical guide
- MDN - CORS
- Alligator - Fetch API
- Supercharged - Fetch
- Codelabs - Fetch
Learn how to use web animations to animate elements in the DOM.
- Google Devs - Animations
- MDN - Using The Web Animations API
- CSS Tricks - CSS Animations vs Web Animations API
Learn how to modularize your code into ES6 modules using the export and import keywords.
Learn how to localize your website using the Intl API.
Learn how to paint graphics onto a canvas.
Learn how to create good documentation and why it is important.
- Getting Started with JSDoc
- A beginner’s guide to writing documentation
- Write Good Documentation
- The power of jsDoc
Learn why web standards are important and how new specifications are standardised.
Learn what W3C are doing and how they are moving the web forward.
Learn what TC39 are doing and how they are moving the web forward.
- The TC39 process for ECMAScript features
- Github - TC39
- Ecma International - Programme of work
- Wikipedia - Ecma International
Learn what WHATWG are doing and how they are moving the web forward.
- WHATWG - FAQ
- WHATWG - Standards
- MDN - WHATWG
- W3C vs. WHATWG HTML5 Specs
- WHATWG - HTML
- Wikipedia - WHATWG
Learn how to read specifications developed by the standards committees.
- How to Read the ECMAScript Specification
- How to Read W3C Specs
- Learning CSS by reading specs
- Understanding the CSS Specifications
Learn what a browser engine is and get an overview of the browser landscape and market share.
- Medium - Browser Engines
- Wikipedia - Comparison
- HTML5 Rocks - How Browsers Work
- Demystifying Browsers
Learn about the Webkit browser engine.
Learn about the Blink browser engine.
Learn about the Gecko browser engine.
Learn how data is distributed through the HTTP protocol.
Learn the basics of how the internet works.
- MDN - How does the Internet work?
- Youtube - How the Internet Works in 5 Minutes
- Explain That Stuff - Internet
- Stanford - How Does the Internet Work?
- How the Internet Works
Learn how it is possible to use polyfills to increase the browser support for your website.
- MDN - Polyfill
- Introduction To Polyfills & Their Usage
- W3C - Polyfills and the evolution of the Web
- Can I use
Learn about the basics concepts of debugging.
- Google Devs - Inspect and Edit Pages and Styles
- MDN - Cross browser testing
- 5 things to remember for better debugging of your code
Learn how to use the developer console to debug your code.
- MDN - Console
- Google Devs - Console API Reference
- Google Devs - Get Started with Chrome DevTools
- Google Devs - Console Utilities API Reference
- MDN - Debugging CSS
- MDN - Debugging HTML
- Youtube - Chrome DevTools 101
- Chrome Devs - Quickly monitor events
- Youtube - 14 Must Know Chrome Dev Tools Tricks
Learn what accessibility is and why it is important.
- Google Devs - Accessibility Fundamentals
- A11ycasts with Rob Dodson
- Udacity - Chromevox Lite
- Dev.to - Why Accessibility Matters
- Abilitynet - Why Accessibility Matters
- Udacity - Web Accessibility
- Youtube - Headings, Landmarks, and Tabs
Learn about assistive technology such as screen readers that reads sections of the page aloud based on the current focus.
- The A11Y Project - Screen Reader Myths
- The A11Y Project - NVDA Screen Reader
- The A11Y Project - OS X Voiceover
- Webaim - Screen Reader Survey
Learn about the accessibility tree and how assistive technology uses it.
Learn how to use ARIA descriptions an labels to help assistive technology understanding your website.
- Google Devs - ARIA Labels
- Google Devs - Hiding and updating content
- The A11Y Project - ARIA States
- The A11Y Project - ARIA Properties
Learn how to write HTML in such as way that assistive technology better understands it.
- Google Devs - Introduction to Semantics
- MDN - Accessibility HTML
- Webaim - Skip navigation
- w3c - Headings
- Freecodecamp - Semantic Elements
Learn how to use the alt attribute to provide a useful text alternative to this image.
Learn how to write CSS in such as way that assistive technology better understands it.
Learn how to build accessible forms that makes it usable to as many people as possible.
Learn how to make the state of each UI element clear.
Learn how to make it easy for keyboard users to navigate your site.
Learn how to create a sensible tab order and how to make it easy for the users to locate the currently focused element.
- web.dev - Control focus with tabindex
- Google Devs - Focus
- Google Devs - Dom Order Matters
- Google Devs - Using Tabindex
- Google Devs - Track Focus
- MDN - :focus-visible
- MDN - :focus-within
Learn how to select colors in such a way that users, including those with visual disabilities, can perceive the content on the page.
- Webaim - Contrast and Color
- The A11Y Project - Check contrast
- The A11Y Project - What is color contrast?
- Designing accessible color systems
Laws & Policies
Learn about the governmental policies related to web accessibility.
- W3C - Laws & Policies
- Webaim - Laws around the world
- Webaim - Section 508
- Webaim - WCAG 2 Checklist
- A11Y.dev - Lawsuits
Learn how to conduct an accessibility review to improve the overall experience of using your site. Remember, good accessibility equals good UX!
- web.dev - Accessibility audits
- Google Devs - How to review
- Webaim - Accessibility Tools
- Google Devs - Accessibility Reference
- Webaim - Wave
- Google Chrome - NoCoffee Extension
- Digital A11Y - Accessibility Plugins
- Google Devs - Accessibility for teams
- WCAG 2.0 checklists
- How to Meet WCAG (Quick Reference)
➤ Web Components
Learn how to create new HTML tags with Custom Elements.
- Google Devs - Custom Elements
- MDN - Using Custom Elements
- CSS Tricks - Creating a Custom Element from Scratch
- dev.to - An introduction to Custom Elements
- itnext - Introduction to Web Components
- web.dev - Web Components
Learn how to use HTML templates to create flexible templates that can then be used to populate the Shadow DOM.
Learn how to encapsulate your CSS using Shadow DOM.
- Google Devs - Shadow DOM
- MDN - Using Shadow DOM
- MDN - Shadow Tree
- CSS Tricks - Encapsulating Style and Structure
- itnext - Introduction to Web Components
- Monica - Shadow DOM: fast and encapsulated styles
Learn how to style the inside of a shadow tree from outside of that Shadow Tree by using Shadow Parts.
- Fergald - CSS Shadow ::part and ::theme
- MDN - ::part
- W3C - CSS Shadow Parts
- Monica - ::part and ::theme, an explainer
- Youtube - CSS Shadow Parts
- Chrome Status - ::part and ::theme
Learn how to compose Custom Elements by using slots.
- Alligator.io - Composing Custom Elements
- MDN - HTML element
- Component.kitchen - A history of the HTML slot element
Get familiar with best practices when it comes to building Web Components.
- Google Devs - Custom Element Best Practices
- Webcomponents.org - Web Components Best Practices
- mateusortiz - Web Components the Right Way
- dev.to - Making Web Components for Different Contexts
Learn how the Constructible Stylesheets proposal enables reusable styles when using shadow dom.
- Google Devs - Constructable Stylesheets
- W3C - Constructable Stylesheet Objects
- dev.to - Why Would Anyone Use Constructible Stylesheets
- Benjamin Farrel - Adopt a Design System
- WICG - Constructable Stylesheet Objects
- Chrome Status - Constructible Stylesheets
Learn how the Form Participation API proposal enables elements, other than built-in form control elements, to participate in form submission and validation.
- Form Participation API Explained
- Chrome Status - Form-associated custom elements
- web-platform-tests - Form Participation
- Google Devs - Form-associated custom elements
- web.dev - More capable form controls
- W3C - Creating a form-associated custom element
➤ Progressive Webapps
Learn how to store data for your web app.
- MDN - Storage
- MDN - Web Storage API
- MDN - Cookies
- MDN - IndexedDB API
- Google Devs - View And Edit Local Storage
- MDN - Client-side storage
Learn what routing means in single page applications.
- How Single-Page Applications Work
- Static Apps - Routing URLs in Static Web Apps
- Routing With Single Page Applications or Client Side Routing
Learn how to use the history API to add single page applicaiton routing to your web app.
- MDN - Working with the History API
- MDN - History API
- CSS Tricks - Using the HTML5 History API
- The History API
- Google Devs - History API: Scroll Restoration
- MDN - The Document Base URL element
Learn how to register a service worker to provide a rich native-like experience.
- Google Devs - Service Workers: an Introduction
- Google Devs - The Service Worker Lifecycle
- Google Devs - Service Worker Registration
- MDN - Service Worker API
- Google Devs - High-performance service worker loading
- Codelabs - Scripting the service worker
- Codelabs - Caching files with the service worker
- Codelabs - Adding a Service Worker
- Google Devs - Debugging Service Workers
- Caching best practices
Learn how to make your web app working offline with an offline first approach.
- Google Devs - The Offline Cookbook
- Udacity - Offline Web Applications
- Offline First
- Google Devs - Offline UX Considerations
- Google Devs - Offline Storage for Progressive Web Apps
- Codelabs - Offline quickstart
- Codelabs - Adding a Service Worker and Offline into your Web App
- Supercharged - Offline Links
- MDN - Online and offline events
- MDN - Making PWAs work offline
Learn how to add push notifications to your web app.
- Google Devs - Adding Push Notifications to a Web App
- MDN - How to make PWAs re-engageable
- MDN - Notifications API
Web App manifest
Learn how to tell the browser about your web app and how it should behave when 'installed' by creating a web app manifest.
- Google Devs - Web App Manifest
- web.dev - Add a web app manifest
- W3C - Web App Manifest
- MDN - How to make PWAs installable
Add to homescreen
Learn how to make your web app installable.
Learn how to handle inputs from pointing devices such as a mouse, pen/stylus or touch.
- MDN - Pointer Events
- Google Devs - Add Touch to Your Site
- Google Devs - Pointing the Way Forward
- Google Devs - Touch Action Options
- W3C - Pointer Events
Learn how to use an app shell to provide an instant and reliable experience to users on repeat visits
Learn about render-blocking resources and why they are bad for the user-experience.
Learn how to minimize the overall download size by optimizing and compressing resources.
- Google Devs - Optimizing Encoding and Transfer Size
- Google Devs - Replace Animated GIFs with Video
- Google Devs - Text Content
- Google Devs - Optimize Images
Learn why it is important to measure performance and which metrics you should prioritize.
- Google Devs - User-centric Performance Metrics
- Udacity - Website Performance Optimization
- Udacity - Browser Rendering Optimization
Largest Contentful Paint
Learn about Largest Contentful Paint and how it impacts the overall performance.
- web.dev - Largest Contentful Paint
- web.dev - Lighthouse Largest Contentful Paint
- Medium - New Performance Metric: What is Largest Contentful Paint?
Total Blocking Time
Learn about Total Blocking Time and how it impacts the overall performance.
Time to Interactive
Learn about Time to Interactive and how it impacts the overall performance.
Learn how to use lazy loading to lower the initial page payload and load time.
- Google Devs - Lazy Loading Images and Video
- Addy Osmani - Lazy Loading Images
- web.dev - Native lazy-loading for the web
- V8 - Dynamic import()
- MDN - Dynamic Import
- TC39 - proposal-dynamic-import
Learn why offscreen images increase the load time and how to avoid them by lazy loading images.
- web.dev - Defer offscreen images
- Google Devs - Properly Size Images
- web.dev - Native lazy-loading for the web
- Addy Osmani - Native image lazy-loading for the web!
Critical Request Chains
Learn about the critical request chains and how to find them in your web app.
Learn how to use tree shaking to eliminate dead code.
Learn about codesplitting an how dividing your code into multiple chunks makes your web app faster.
Learn how to use the PRPL pattern to make web apps more performant.
- Google Devs - The PRPL Pattern
- Ben Schwarz - Real world performance
Learn about resource prioritization and how to inform the browser about the importance of a resource.
- Google Devs - Resource Prioritization
- Eliminating Roundtrips with Preconnect
- Addy Osmani - Preload, Prefetch And Priorities in Chrome
- web.dev - Preconnect to required origins
- Preload, prefetch and other tags
Learn about caching and how it can be uses to make web apps load faster.
Learn about rendering, how a page is rendered and why it is important to keep your web app interactive and smooth running.
- Google Devs - Constructing the Object Model
- Google Devs - Rendering Performance
- Google Devs - Render-tree Construction
- Google Devs - Render Blocking CSS
- Youtube - Jake Archibald: In The Loop
- Youtube - What the heck is the event loop anyway?
Learn about microtasks and the microtask queue.
- Tasks, microtasks, queues and schedules
Learn about the stack and how to investigate the staack trace when debugging.
- MDN - console.trace()
- V8 - Stack trace API
- Confused about Stack and Heap?
Learn about the heap and how to investigate the heap snapshots when debugging.
- Google Devs - Memory Problems
- Google Devs - Memory Terminology
- Google Devs - How to Record Heap Snapshots
- Confused about Stack and Heap?
- Google Devs - How to Use the Allocation Profiler Tool
Learn how to use the RAIL model to ensure a good user experience.
- Google Devs - RAIL
- Google Devs - Why Performance Matters
- Google Devs - Get Started With Analyzing
- Google Devs - Animations and Performance
- Google Devs - Choosing the Right Easing
- Google Devs - Animating Modal Views
- MDN - Performance fundamentals
- Youtube - Fast By Default
Learn how to use the requestAnimationFrame API to create butter-smooth animations.
Learn how to use the requestIdleCallback to defer heavy tasks.
Critical Rendering Path
Learn about the critical rendering path and how to identify it.
- Google Devs - Critical Rendering Path
- MDN - Critical Rendering Path
- Understanding the critical rendering path
The Pixel Pipeline
Learn about the five key points in the pixels-to-screen pipeline.
- Google Devs - The pixel pipeline
- Pixels are expensive
- Google Devs - The Applied Science of Runtime Performance
- CSS Triggers
Learn how to optimize your CSS to avoid heavy style calculations.
Learn about transforms and how it is possible to avoid both layout and paint.
- Google Devs - Use transform and opacity for animations
- Achieving 60 FPS Animations with CSS3
- HTML5 Rocks - High Performance Animations
Learn about paint areas and how it is possible to reduce them.
Learn about layout trashing and how to avoid it.
Learn about layers and how to promote an element to another layer.
- Google Devs - Manage Layer Count
- HTML5 Rocks - Accelerated Rendering in Chrome
- Layers and how to force them
Learn how to debounce computationally expensive code to avoid blocking the UI.
Learn how to use CSS containment to improve the performance of your web app.
- Google Devs - CSS Containment
- W3C - CSS Containment Module
- An introduction to CSS Containment
- MDN - Contain
- CSS Tricks - CSS containment
Learn how to use web workers to run a script operation in a background thread separate from the main execution thread.
Learn about HTTPS and why a website should always be protected with HTTPS.
- Google Devs - Why HTTPS Matters
- Google Devs - Enabling HTTPS on Your Servers
- Google Devs - Mixed Content
- Youtube - Stories from the field
Learn about the sandbox security mechanism and how it restricts the execution environment.
Learn about the OWASP organization and how they help with web application security.
- Wikipedia - OWASP
- OWASP - About
- OWASP - OWASP Top 10
- OWASP - Cheatsheets
- Youtube - OWASP
- OWASP Top 10 Security Risks
- Wikipedia - Web application security
Learn about cross-site scripting and how it is possible mitigate these kind of attacks.
Learn about clickjacking and how it is possible to mitigate these kind of attacks.
- OWASP - Clickjacking
- Wikipedia - Clickjacking
- web.dev - Same-origin policy
- OWASP - Clickjacking Cheatsheet
Content Security Policy
Learn about content security policy and how it can help to detect and mitigate certain types of attacks.
Learn about performance budgets and how you can create one for your web app.
- web.dev - Performance Budgets
- Google Devs - Performance Budget
- Addy Osmani - Start Performance Budgeting
Learn about lighthouse and how it can be used to audit your web app.
Learn about the Chrome DevTools and how it can be used to audit your web app.
- Google Devs - Chrome DevTools
- Google Devs - Inspect animations
- Investigate animation performance with DevTools
➤ Build tools
Learn about package managers and how they make managing dependencies easier.
Learn about NPM and how it can be used to manage dependencies.
- npmjs - About npm
- npmjs - Getting started
- Introduction to npm and basic npm commands
- An Absolute Beginner's Guide to Using npm
Learn about Yarn and how it can be used to manage dependencies.
Learn about module bundler and how they can help bundling your code.
- dev.to - What is a module bundler?
- Freecodecamp - Let’s learn how module bundlers work
Learn how you can use Rollup to bundle your code.
Learn how you can use Webpack to bundle your code.
Learn how you can use Parcel to bundle your code.
Learn how Snowpack can replace the traditional app bundler during development.
Linters and formatters
Learn how you can improve your code quality with linters and formatters.
Learn how you can use Prettier to format your code.
- Prettier - What is Prettier?
- Let the computer do the formatting
- Prettier - Playground
- Prettier - Integrating with Linters
Learn how you can use ESLint to lint your code.
- Eslint - Getting Started
- Streamline Code Reviews with ESLint + Prettier
- Prettier vs ESLint: What’s The Difference?
Learn about task runners and how you can automate code execution.
Learn about NPM scripts and how you can run your own.
Learn what transpilers are and why we need them.
- Wikipedia - Source-to-source compiler
Learn about Babel and how you can use it to transpile your code.
- Complete Babel 7 Guide for Beginners
- Babel - What is Babel?
- Babel - Usage Guide
- A Beginner’s Guide to Babel
- Moving to ES6 — Babel and Transpilers
Learn how to use Typescript and how it can help making your code typesafe.
- Typescript - Documentation
- Typescript: Why should one use i?
- Why TypeScript is the best way to write Front-end in 2019
Learn about CSS pre-processors and why we need them.
Learn about SASS and how you can use it to simplify your styles.
Learn about PostCSS and how you can use its ecosystem of plugins to extend your CSS build pipeline.
Learn how to use Node.js.
➤ Frameworks & Libraries
Learn how to use lit-element for creating fast, lightweight web components.
- Google Devs - Lightning-fast templates
- Vaadin - Creating a LitElement project
- dev.to - Web Components: from zero to hero, part three
Learn about Vue and how you can use it for building web apps.
Learn about React and how you can use it for building web apps.
Learn about Angular and how you can use it for building web apps.
Learn about Svelte and how it can convert your component into highly efficient imperative code.
Learn how Stencil can be used for generating small, fast web components.
- Alligator - Getting Started With Stencil
- How to Build Reusable Web Components Using Stenciljs
Learn about various software testing methodologies and why it is important to test your code.
Learn about unit testing and how it can be used to test individual units of code.
- Unit Testing Tutorial
- Wikipedia - Unit testing
- What is Unit Testing?
- The Arrange, Act and Assert (AAA) Pattern
Learn about integration testing and how it can be used to test modules as a group.
Learn about system testing and how it can be used to test the fully integrated software product.
Learn about acceptance testing and how it can be used to test the software for acceptability
Learn about smoke testing and how it can be used to ensure that critical functionalities of the program are working fine.
Learn about performance testing and how it can be used to determine the responsiveness and stability of a program.
Learn about usability testing and how it can be used to determine if the system is easily usable for the end-user.
White Box Testing
Learn about white box testing and how it can be used to test the software's internal structure, design, and coding.
Black Box Testing
Learn about black box testing and how a test can be carried out without looking at the internal code.
Learn about automated testing and when it should be applied.
Learn about manual testing and when it should be applied.
Learn about continuous integration and it can enable iterative software development.
- dev.to - Continuous Integration Explained
- Continuous Integration Tutorial
- Wikipedia - Continuous integration
Learn about A/B testing and how it can be used to optimize your web app.
- dev.to - A/B testing: introduction
- dev.to - When Not To A/B Test
- A/B Testing
- Wikipedia - A/B testing
Learn about test runners and how they can help running tests.
Learn about the Karma test runner.
Learn about the Mocha testing framework.
Learn about the Jasmine testing frameworks.
Learn how to use Cypress for end-to-end-testing.
Learn about the Ava test runner.
- Github - Ava
- Freecodecamp - How you can test your Node.js applications
Learn about the best practices when it comes to testing.
- What are the best practices in software Testing?
- 7 Software Testing Best Practices
➤ Architecture & paradigms
Learn how programming languages can be categoried into different paraigmes based on their features.
- Wikipedia - Programming paradigm
- Introduction of Programming Paradigms
Object Oriented Programming
Learn about object oriented programming and how objects can make your code easier to read and debug.
- Freecodecamp - An introduction to Object-Oriented Programming
Learn about the SOLID design pricinples that can make your code more understandable, flexible and maintainable.
- Wikipedia - SOLID
- S.O.L.I.D: The First 5 Principles of Object Oriented Design
Learn about functional programming and how it can make your code easier to read and debug.
- An introduction to Functional Programming
Learn about recursion and when it can be used to make your code more readable.
Learn about higher-order functions and when it can be used to make your code more readable.
- Higher-Order Functions
- Freecodecamp - A quick intro to Higher-Order Functions
- Wikipedia - Higher-Order function
Learn about currying and when it can be used to make your code more readable.
- dev.to - All you need to know about currying
- Curry and Function Composition
- Wikipedia - Currying
Learn about monads and when it can be used to make your code more readable.
- Youtube - Monad, FunFunFunction
- Youtube - Functors, FunFunFunction
- Wikipedia - Monad
- MDN - Array.prototype.flatMap()
Learn how commonly occurring problems can be solved using design patterns.
- Wikipedia - Software design pattern
- The 7 Most Important Software Design Patterns
- Software Design Patterns
- Design Patterns
- Design Patterns in TypeScript
Learn about the singleton design pattern and when it should be used.
Learn about the observer design pattern and when it should be used.
Learn about the prototype design pattern and when it should be used.
Learn about the bridge design pattern and when it should be used.
Learn about the proxy design pattern and when it should be used.
Chain of responsibility
Learn about the chain of responsibility design pattern and when it should be used.
Learn about the constructor design pattern and when it should be used.
- The Constructor Pattern
- Difference between Constructor pattern and Prototype pattern
Learn how CSS can be structured using CSS methodologies.
- A Look at Some CSS Methodologies
- A web designer's guide to CSS methodologies
- Understanding CSS Writing Methodologies
Learn about the BEM methodology and when it should be used.
Learn about the SMACSS methodology and when it should be used.
Learn about the OOCSS methodology and when it should be used.
➤ Team Collaboration
Learn about git and how it is used for version control.
- Learn Git Branching
- Git Handbook
- Github Cheatsheet
- Visualizing Git
- Codecademy - Learn Gitthis
- Git Hint
Learn how to use Github.
Learn how to use Bitbucket.
- Wikipedia - Bitbucket
- Tutorial: Learn Bitbucket with Git
- Getting Started with Bitbucket for Version Control
Learn about agile development and when to use it.
- Wikipedia - Agile software development
- What is agile methodology?
- What is Agile Software Development?
Learn about scrum and when to use it.
Learn about kanban and when to use it.
Learn about waterfall development and when to use it.
Test Driven Development
Learn about test driven development and when to use it.
- Wikipedia - Test-driven development
- Red, Green, Refactor
- Freecodecamp - Test Driven Development
- TDD Changed My Life
➤ Design & UX
Learn about color theory and how you can make your own color schemes.
- All you need to know about colors in UI Design
- The Role of Color in UX
- 10 Questions of Color Theory
- Wikipedia - Color Theory
- The Meaning of Color
- 50 Gorgeous Color Schemes
Learn how to use the color wheel when making a color scheme.
- Color Theory: Brief Guide For Designers
- Color theory and the color wheel
- The fundamentals of understanding color theory
- Adobe - Color wheel
Learn about typography and how to describe fonts.
- Google - Understanding typography
- How to Understand Typography
- Typography Elements Everyone Needs to Understand
- Youtube - 10 rules to help you rule type
- Font Design
- Typography Tutorial for Beginners
- A Crash Course in Typography
- Type Classifications
- Google Fonts
- 7 web typography rules
- 15 Best Practices To Excellent UI
Learn about font sizes and how to choose the right one.
- Type scale
- The importance of font size
- Website font size: Size does matter
- CSS Tricks - font-size
- CSS Tricks - Fluid Typography
Learn about line spacing and how to choose the right one.
- Best UX practices for line spacing
- Line spacing
- Why you should go big with line spacing
- CSS Tricks - line-height
Learn how the C.R.A.P. design principles can help you point out the qualities (or flaws) in a design.
- Build Better User Experience
- CRAP Principles
- The Non-Designer's Design Book
- Youtube - The Non-Designers Design Book
- How CRAP Will Make You a Better Designer
- The Big Four: Contrast, Repetition, Alignment, Proximity
Learn how the principles of contrast can help you when designing.
- Designing with contrast: 20 tips from a designer
- Contrast Design principle of Graphic Design
- Contrast In Design
- Fully understanding contrast in design
Learn how the principles of repetition can help you when designing.
- Repetition Design principle of Graphic Design
- Repetition Principle of Design
- Repetition, Pattern, and Rhythm
- Repetition, principles of design
- How to Use Repetition Effectively
Learn how the principles of alignment can help you when designing.
- Alignment Design principle of Graphic Design
- Alignment Principle Of Design
- The Art Of Alignment In Graphic Design
- Introduction to Alignment
Learn how the principles of proximity can help you when designing.
- Proximity Design principle of Graphic Design
- How to Use Proximity Effectively
- Proximity Principle Of Design
- Gestalt Theory for UX Design: Principle of Proximity
- Principles of Design: Proximity
Learn why consistency is one of the most important building-blocks in a design.
- Design principle: Consistency
- Consistency, A Key Design Principle
- Consistency: MORE than what you think
- Principle of Consistency in User Interface Design
- The value of consistent design
Learn how to use space in your design.
- Space in Design Systems
- How to use spacing margin and spacing in design
- How To Use Space In Design
- Importance of White Space in Design
- Negative Space in Design
- How to Change Line Spacing in InDesign
Learn how to improve the user experience by handling errors in an intuitive way.
- Design an Error Handling System before you structure your App
- UI Error Handling
- Creating Error Messages
Learn how a loading state can improve the user experience.
- Everything you need to know about skeleton screens
- Engaging users with progressive loading in skeleton screen
- Design and code responsive Skeleton Screens
- How to Speed Up Your UX with Skeleton Screens
- A Bone to Pick with Skeleton Screens
- When to use loaders & empty states
- Empty/Loading State
- When You Need to Show a Button’s Loading State
- Stop Using Loading Spinner
The Golden Ratio
Learn how the golden ratio can help you when choose measurements for your design.
- The Golden Ratio in Design
- A guide to the Golden Ratio for designers
- What is the golden ratio
- The Golden Ratio: A designer's guide
- Golden Ratio: What It Is And Why Should You Use It In Design
- Golden Ratio Typography (GRT) Calculator
- How to Use the Golden Ratio
- Golden Ratio in Design
- How To Use The Golden Ratio In Design
Learn about designing for mobile first and why it is important.
- Complete guide to mobile first design
- What is Mobile First Design?
- A Hands-On Guide to Mobile-First Responsive Design
- Mobile First Design
Learn about hit targets can why they should not be neglected.
- Finger-Friendly Design
- Size matters! Accessibility and Touch Targets
- Optimal Size and Spacing for Mobile Buttons
Learn what design systems are and get familiar with some.
- A guide to design systems
- What the heck is a design system?
- Everything you need to know about Design Systems
- What is a Design System?
- What's a Design System
Learn about material design and get familiar with the core principles.
- Google - Material Design
- Google - Material Components
- Google - Material Develop
- Google - Material Tutorial
- Wikipedia - Material Design
Learn about fluent design and get familiar with the core principles.
- Microsoft - Fluent Design System
- Microsoft - Fluent UI Toolkit
- Wikipedia - Fluent Design System
- Fluent: Design Behind the Design
- Iconic Icons: Designing the World of Windows
- Evolving the Microsoft Fluent Design System
Learn how and why it is important to design for accessibility.
- Designing For Accessibility And Inclusion
- Designing for accessibility is not that hard
- Designing Accessible Experiences at Scale
- Material Design - Accessibility
- W3C - Designing for Web Accessibility
- Accessibility in government
- W3C - Visual Presentation
Learn about some of the best practices when designing.
- 13 Website Design Best Practices For 2019
- Design Best Practices
- Refactoring UI
- Refactoring UI | CSS Day 2019
- Dieter Ram' 10 principles for good design
➤ The Modern Web
Learn about streams and how they can help you effeciently transporting data.
Learn about media streams and how it is possible to get a stream to device specific hardware such as the camera or microphone.
- MDN - Media Streams API
- MDN - Image Capture API
- MDN - mediaDevices.getUserMedia()
- W3C - Media Capture and Streams
Learn how to use the media recorder API to record media streams.
- MDN - MediaStream Recording API
- Media Recorder API Demo
- WTC - MediaStream Recording
- What Web Can Do Today - Recording Media
Learn how to use Web RTC for establishing real-time communication.
- MDN - WebRTC API
- WebRTC - Getting Started
- WebRTC samples
- Wikipedia - WebRTC
- What Web Can Do Today - WebRTC
Learn how to use the Screen Capture API for recording the screen.
Learn how to use generator functions to define iterative algorithms by writing functions whose execution is not continuous.
- MDN - Iterators and generators
- Understanding Generators with Examples
- MDN - function*
- MDN - yield*
Learn how the speech synthesis API can help you converting text to speech.
- Google Devs - Web apps that talk
- MDN - window.speechSynthesis
- MDN - SpeechSynthesis
- W3C - Web Speech API
- The Speech Synthesis API
Learn about web sockets and how you can push data to your web app.
- MDN - Websockets API
- What are Web Sockets?
- HTML5 Rocks - Introducing WebSockets
- WHATWG - Web sockets
Learn how to ask the user for permission to the location.
- MDN - Geolocation API
- Alligrator - Using the Geolocation API
- Google Maps Platform - Displaying User Position on Maps
- What Web Can Do Today - Geolocation
Device orientation & motion
Learn how to measure the orientation and motion of the device.
- MDN - Detecting device orientation
- W3C - DeviceOrientation Event Specification
- HTML5 Rocks - Introduction
- What Web Can Do Today - Device Position
- W3C - Generic Sensor API
- MDN - Sensor APIs
- Google Devs - Sensors For The Web
Learn how to use the fullscreen API to give the user a more immersive experience when needed.
Learn how to use variable fonts and how it is possible to customize fonts without the need for loading more.
- MDN - Variable fonts guide
- Google Devs - Introduction to variable fonts
- Supercharged - Variable Fonts
Learn about the faster and more convenient HTTP/2 protocol.
- Google Devs - Introduction to HTTP/2
- Wikipedia - HTTP/2
- HTTP/2: the difference between HTTP/1.1
- HTTP/2 - FAQ
- Why turning on HTTP/2 was a mistake
Payment Request API
Learn about the payment request API and how it can help monetize your web app.
- MDN - Payment Request API
- Codelabs - Payment Request API
- What Web Can Do Today - Payments
- W3C - Payment Request API
- Google Devs - Introduction to the Payment Request API
Learn how to use the Web Audio API to add audio to your web app.
- MDN - Using the Web Audio API
- MDN - Web Audio API
- W3C - Web Audio API
- HTML5 Rocks - Getting Started with Web Audio API
- All You Need to Know About the Web Audio API
- Alligator - Your First Steps with the Web Audio API
Learn about the observer pattern and get comfortable concepts such as subjects and observers.
- Wikipedia - Publish–subscribe pattern
Learn how to use the Mutation Observer API to get informed about changes to the DOM.
- MDN - MutationObserver
- Listening to the DOM changes with MutationObserver
- David Walsh - MutationObserver API
- WHATWG - Mutation observers
Learn how to use the Intersection Observer API can help you detect when an element is visible on the screen.
- MDN - Intersection Observer API
- W3C - Intersection Observer
- Google Devs - Trust is Good, Observation is Better
- CSS Tricks - An Explanation of Intersection Observers
- CSS Tricks - A Few Functional Uses for Intersection Observer
- google Devs - An event for CSS position:sticky
Learn how to use the Resize Observer API to get informed when the element resizes.
- MDN - Resize Observer API
- Google Devs - It’s Like document.onresize for Elements
- David Walsh - Resize Observer
Learn how the Performance Observer API can help you get information about the performance of your web app.
Learn about the Scrollsnapping API and how it can help you provide an intuitive experience when scrolling.
- CSS Tricks - Practical CSS Scroll Snapping
- CSS Tricks - Introducing CSS Scroll Snap Points
- Google Devs - Well-Controlled Scrolling with CSS Scroll Snap
- MDN - CSS Scroll Snap
- The scroll-snap-* Properties
Learn about Web Assembly and how it opens up the playing field for new types of web apps.
- MDN - WebAssembly Concepts
- MDN - WebAssembly
- dev.to - Why the heck is everyone talking about WebAssembly?
- Introduction to Web Assembly
- Google Codelabs - An Introduction to Web Assembly
- How We Used WebAssembly To Speed Up Our Web App By 20X
- Google Devs - WebAssembly
Learn how the Beacon API can help you send data to endpoints before the user closes the page.
Learn about the Clipboard API and how it can help you copy and paste data.
- MDN - Clipboard
- What Web Can Do Today - Clipboard (Copy & Paste)
- Google Devs - Image Support for the Async Clipboard API
Learn how the Web Share API can help users sharing your web app.
- MDN - Share
- Google Devs - Introducing the Web Share API
- Google Devs - Registering as a Share Target
- CSS Tricks - How to Use the Web Share API
- The Web Share API
- dev.to - How to implement the Web Share API with a fallback
Learn about the Performance API and how it can help you monitor the performance of the device.
- MDN - Performance
- MDN - performance.measure()
- CSS Tricks - Breaking Down the Performance API
- Google Devs - Assessing Loading Performance
- MDN - Performance Specifications
- MDN - Performance Timeline
Learn how the Gamepad API can help you integrate with various controllers such as an x-box or playstation controller
- MDN - Using the Gamepad API
- MDN - Gamepad API
- luser - Gamepad Test
- MDN - Implementing controls using the Gamepad API
Learn how to use the Speech Recognition API to analyze speech.
- MDN - Using the Web Speech API
- MDN - SpeechRecognition
- MDN - Web Speech API
- Github - web-speech-api
- What Web Can Do Today - Speech Recognition
Interaction Media Queries
Learn how to use Interaction Media Queries to optimize the user experience for the specific type of device.
- Introducing CSS Interaction Media Queries
- MDN - Media features
- Touch Devices Should Not Be Judged By Their Size
- Interaction Media Features and their potential
- W3C - Interaction Media Features
- What Web Can Do Today - Pointing Device Adaptation
Learn how to build browser extensions to enhance the functionality of your browser.
- MDN - Browser Extensions
- Chrome - What are extensions?
- Chrome - Getting Started with Extensions
- Youtube - Google Chrome Extensions
Pointer Lock API
Learn how to use the Pointer Lock API to get the raw mouse movement and lock the target of mouse events to a single element.
Picture In Picture
Learn how to use the Picture-In-Picture API to watch videos in a floating window (always on top of other windows).
- Google Devs - Watch video using Picture-in-Picture
- Picture-in-Picture Sample
- CSS Tricks - An Introduction to Picture-in-Picture
- dev.to - Implement Picture-in-Picture on the Web
- Medium - How to use “picture in picture
Learn how to use proxies to intercept certain operations and implement custom behaviors.
- MDN - Meta programming
- MDN - Proxy
Learn about the Houdini project and get excited about the future of CSS.
- Google Devs - Houdini, Demystifying CSS
- web.dev - Smarter custom properties
- CSS Houdini Experiments
- Interactive Introduction to CSS Houdini
- W3C - CSS Houdini Wiki
- Google Devs - Houdini's Animation Worklet
Learn about Project Fugu project and get excited about the future of the Web.
- Our commitment to a more capable web
- Web Capabilities (Fugu)
- Chromium Bugs - Fugu
- Google Devs - Unlocking new capabilities for the web
- Youtube - Unlocking New Capabilities for the Web
- Controlling Access to Powerful Web Platform Features
Web Authentication API
Learn how to use the Web Authentication API to provide a strong authentication with public key cryptography.
- MDN - Web Authentication API
- W3C - Web Authentication: An API for accessing Public Key Credentials
- Google Devs - Enabling Strong Authentication with WebAuthn
- Introduction to Web Authentication: The New W3C Spec
- Microsoft - Web Authentication and Windows Hello
- Web Authentication: What It Is and What It Means for Passwords
Credentials Manager API
Learn about the Credentials Manager API proposal and how it can help authenticating users.
- MDN - Credential Management API
- Google Devs - The Credential Management API
- Google Devs - Sign in Users
- Google Devs - Save Credentials from Forms
- What Web Can Do Today - Credentials
Native File System
Learn how the Native File System API proposal enables interacting with files on the user's local device.
- Google Devs - The Native File System API
- Github - Native File System
- W3C - Native File System
- Native File System Web API - Chromium Security Model
- Chromestatus - Native File System
- W3C - File API
Learn how the Shape Detection API proposal can be use to detect shapes such as faces or barcodes in pictures.
- W3C - Accelerated Shape Detection in Images
- web.dev - A Picture is Worth a Thousand Words
- Github - Shape Detection API Specification
- Introduction to the Shape Detection API
- Face detection using Shape Detection API
Learn how the Web Bluetooth API proposal can be used to connect with nearby devices.
- MDN - Web Bluetooth API
- Google Devs - Interact with Bluetooth devices
- What Web Can Do Today - Bluetooth
- W3C - Web Bluetooth
- Web Bluetooth Samples
Learn the Web USB API proposal can be used to connect with hardware through a cable.
- MDN - USB
- WICG - Web USB
- Google Devs - Access USB Devices on the Web
- What Web Can Do Today - Web USB
Learn how to use Web XR API proposal for virtual- and augmented reality experiences.
- MDN - WebXR Device API
- Google Devs - Welcome to the immersive web
- New API to Bring Augmented Reality to the Web
- W3C - WebXR Device API
Learn how the Presentation API proposal enables your web app to use the presentation display mode in the browser or at an external display device.
- MDN - Presentation API
- What Web Can Do Today - Presentation Features
- Google Devs - Present web pages to secondary attached displays
- W3C - Presentation API
Network Information API
Learn how the Network Information API proposal can give you information about the state of the network.
- MDN - Network Information API
- Addy Osmani - Adaptive Serving
- W3C - Network Information API
- Network Information API Sample
- What Web Can Do Today - Network Type & Speed
➤ Algorithms & Data structures
Learn how and when arrays should be used.
- Freecodecamp - Arrays, A Visual Introduction for Beginners
- Wikipedia - Array data structure
- MDN - Array
Queues & Stacks
Learn how and when queues and stacks should be used.
- Stacks and Queues
- Difference between Stack and Queue Data Structures
- Data Structures: Stacks & Queues
Learn how and when trees should be used.
- Wikipedia - Tree (data structure)
- Freecodecamp - Everything you need to know about tree data structure
- Data Structure and Algorithms - Tree
Binary Indexed Tree
Learn how and when binary indexed trees should be used.