guilhermeaiolfi / mWebSockets

WebSockets for microcontrollers

Home Page:https://skaarj1989.github.io/mWebSockets/autobahn-testsuite/servers/

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μWebSockets

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Simple to use implementation of WebSockets for microcontrollers.

List of supported IDEs:

List of supported MCUs:

  • ATmega328P
  • ATmega2560
  • SAMD21 (ARM Cortex-M0+)
  • STM32 (ARM Cortex-M)
  • ESP8266
  • ESP32-WROOM-32D

WebSocketServer compatible browsers:

  • Chrome
  • Edge
  • Firefox
  • Opera

The Autobahn|Testsuite reports for server and client >
Some tests will never pass just because of memory lack in ATmega family.

Table of contents

Requirements

  • Development board (confirmed working, other boards may or may not work):
    • Arduino Uno (ATmega328P)
    • Arduino Pro Mini (ATmega328P)
    • Arduino Mega2560
    • Arduino Zero / SAMD21 M0 (ARM Cortex-M0)
    • STM Nucleo-64 (ARM Cortex-M)
    • WeMos D1 mini (ESP8266)
    • NodeMCU v3 (ESP8266)
    • ESPDUINO-32 (ESP32-WROOM-32D)
  • Ethernet module or shield (confirmed working):
    • Arduino Ethernet Shield (W5100)
    • Arduino Ethernet Shield 2 (W5500)
    • WizNet W5500 module
    • ENC28j60
  • Libraries:

Installation

Use Arduino Download Manager or follow this guide.

config.h

Change the following definition if you use a different network controller:

...

#define NETWORK_CONTROLLER ETHERNET_CONTROLLER_W5X00
ETHERNET_CONTROLLER_W5X00
ETHERNET_CONTROLLER_ENC28J60
NETWORK_CONTROLLER_WIFI

ETHERNET_CONTROLLER_W5X00 stands for the official Arduino Ethernet library.

Uncomment these if you want additional information on the serial monitor:

//#define _DEBUG
//#define _DUMP_HANDSHAKE
//#define _DUMP_FRAME_DATA
//#define _DUMP_HEADER

Increase the following value if you expect big data frames (or decrease for devices with a small amount of memory).

constexpr uint16_t kBufferMaxSize{ 256 };

Physical connection

If you have a WeMos D1 in the size of Arduino Uno simply attaching a shield does not work. You have to wire the ICSP on an Ethernet Shield to proper pins.

Ethernet Shield
(W5100/W5500)
Arduino
Pro Mini
WeMos D1
(ICSP) MISO PIN 12 D12 / MISO
(ICSP) MOSI PIN 11 D11 / MOSI
(ICSP) SCK PIN 13 D13 / SCK
(SS) PIN 10 PIN 10 D10 / SS
W5500 /
ENC28j60
Arduino Uno /
Pro Mini
Arduino
Mega2560
MISO PIN 12 PIN 50
MOSI PIN 11 PIN 51
SCS PIN 10 PIN 53
SCLK PIN 13 PIN 52

Usage examples

Server

#include <WebSocketServer.h>
using namespace net;

WebSocketServer server{3000};

void setup() {
  // Ethernet/WiFi initialization goes here ...
  // ...

  server.onConnection([](WebSocket &ws) {
    const char message[]{ "Hello from Arduino server!" };
    ws.send(message, strlen(message));

    ws.onClose([](WebSocket &ws, const WebSocket::CloseCode code,
                 const char *reason, uint16_t length) {
      // ...
    });
    ws.onMessage([](WebSocket &ws, const WebSocket::DataType dataType,
                   const char *message, uint16_t length) {
      // ...
    });
  });

  server.begin();
}

void loop() {
  server.listen();
}

Verify clients

// verifyClient callback is called for every header during handshake
// (except for those required by protocol, like "Connection", "Upgrade" etc.)
server.begin([](const IPAddress &ip, const char *header, const char *value) {
  // verify ip ...

  // verify "Origin" header:
  if (strcmp_P(header, (PGM_P)F("Origin")) == 0)
    if (strcmp_P(value, (PGM_P)F("file://")) == 0) return false;

  return true;
});

Subprotocol negotiation

// If you won't pass callback for `protocolHandler` then server will use the
// first requested subprotocol if any
wss.begin(nullptr, [](const char *protocols) {
  // iterate csv protocols and return the one that is supported by your server
  // or nullptr to ignore
});

// You can check client protocol in other callbacks
wss.onConnection([](WebSocket &ws) {
  const auto protocol = ws.getProtocol();
  // ...
  }
});

Node.js server examples here

Client

#include <WebSocketClient.h>
using namespace net;

WebSocketClient client;

void setup() {
  // Ethernet/WiFi initialization goes here ...
  // ...

  client.onOpen([](WebSocket &ws) {
    const char message[]{ "Hello from Arduino client!" };
    ws.send(message, strlen(message));
  });
  client.onClose([](WebSocket &ws, const WebSocket::CloseCode code,
                   const char *reason, uint16_t length) {
    // ...
  });
  client.onMessage([](WebSocket &ws, const WebSocket::DataType dataType,
                     const char *message, uint16_t length) {
    // ...
  });

  client.open("echo.websocket.org", 80);
}

void loop() {
  client.listen();
}

Chat

Node.js server on Raspberry Pi (/node.js/chat.js)

Browser client (/node.js/chat-client.htm)

Arduino Uno client (/examples/chat/chat.ino)

More examples here

Approx memory usage

simple-client.ino example (without debug output, 128 bytes data buffer)

Ethernet.h (W5100 and W5500)

Board Program space Dynamic memory
Arduino Uno 24 648 bytes (76%) 829 bytes (40%)
Arduino Mega2560 25 640 bytes (10%) 857 bytes (10%)
Arduino Pro Mini 24 648 bytes (80%) 829 bytes (40%)
Arduino Zero 30 596 bytes (11%) 3 056 bytes (9%)

EthernetENC.h (ENC28j60)

Board Program space Dynamic memory
Arduino Uno 31 062 bytes (96%) 1 406 bytes (68%)
Arduino Mega2560 32 074 bytes (12%) 1 406 bytes (17%)
Arduino Pro Mini 31 062 bytes (101%) 1 406 bytes (68%)
Arduino Zero 36 796 bytes (14%) 3 684 bytes (11%)

WiFi

Board Program space Dynamic memory
Generic ESP8266 286 328 bytes (29%) 27 356 bytes (33%)
WeMos D1 mini 286 328 bytes (27%) 27 356 bytes (33%)
NodeMCU 286 328 bytes (27%) 27 356 bytes (33%)

Known issues

...

License

About

WebSockets for microcontrollers

https://skaarj1989.github.io/mWebSockets/autobahn-testsuite/servers/

License:MIT License


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