darkdarkfruit / render

Go package for easily rendering JSON, XML, binary data, and HTML templates responses.

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Render is a package that provides functionality for easily rendering JSON, XML, binary data, and HTML templates. This package is based on the Martini render work.

Usage

Render can be used with pretty much any web framework providing you can access the http.ResponseWriter from your handler. The rendering functions simply wraps Go's existing functionality for marshaling and rendering data.

  • HTML: Uses the html/template package to render HTML templates.
  • JSON: Uses the encoding/json package to marshal data into a JSON-encoded response.
  • XML: Uses the encoding/xml package to marshal data into an XML-encoded response.
  • Binary data: Passes the incoming data straight through to the http.ResponseWriter.
// main.go
package main

import (
    "encoding/xml"
    "net/http"

    "github.com/unrolled/render"  // or "gopkg.in/unrolled/render.v1"
)

type ExampleXml struct {
    XMLName xml.Name `xml:"example"`
    One     string   `xml:"one,attr"`
    Two     string   `xml:"two,attr"`
}

func main() {
    r := render.New()
    mux := http.NewServeMux()

    mux.HandleFunc("/", func(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
        w.Write([]byte("Welcome, visit sub pages now."))
    })

    mux.HandleFunc("/data", func(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
        r.Data(w, http.StatusOK, []byte("Some binary data here."))
    })

    mux.HandleFunc("/json", func(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
        r.JSON(w, http.StatusOK, map[string]string{"hello": "json"})
    })

    mux.HandleFunc("/jsonp", func(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
        r.JSONP(w, http.StatusOK, "callbackName", map[string]string{"hello": "jsonp"})
    })

    mux.HandleFunc("/xml", func(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
        r.XML(w, http.StatusOK, ExampleXml{One: "hello", Two: "xml"})
    })

    mux.HandleFunc("/html", func(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
        // Assumes you have a template in ./templates called "example.tmpl"
        // $ mkdir -p templates && echo "<h1>Hello {{.}}.</h1>" > templates/example.tmpl
        r.HTML(w, http.StatusOK, "example", nil)
    })

    http.ListenAndServe("0.0.0.0:3000", mux)
}
<!-- templates/example.tmpl -->
<h1>Hello {{.}}.</h1>

Available Options

Render comes with a variety of configuration options (Note: these are not the default option values. See the defaults below.):

// ...
r := render.New(render.Options{
    Directory: "templates", // Specify what path to load the templates from.
    Asset: func(name string) ([]byte, error) { // Load from an Asset function instead of file.
      return []byte("template content"), nil
    },
    AssetNames: func() []string { // Return a list of asset names for the Asset function
      return []string{"filename.tmpl"}
    },
    Layout: "layout", // Specify a layout template. Layouts can call {{ yield }} to render the current template.
    Extensions: []string{".tmpl", ".html"}, // Specify extensions to load for templates.
    Funcs: []template.FuncMap{AppHelpers}, // Specify helper function maps for templates to access.
    Delims: render.Delims{"{[{", "}]}"}, // Sets delimiters to the specified strings.
    Charset: "UTF-8", // Sets encoding for json and html content-types. Default is "UTF-8".
    IndentJSON: true, // Output human readable JSON.
    IndentXML: true, // Output human readable XML.
    PrefixJSON: []byte(")]}',\n"), // Prefixes JSON responses with the given bytes.
    PrefixXML: []byte("<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>"), // Prefixes XML responses with the given bytes.
    HTMLContentType: "application/xhtml+xml", // Output XHTML content type instead of default "text/html".
    IsDevelopment: true, // Render will now recompile the templates on every HTML response.
    UnEscapeHTML: true, // Replace ensure '&<>' are output correctly (JSON only).
    StreamingJSON: true, // Streams the JSON response via json.Encoder.
})
// ...

Default Options

These are the preset options for Render:

r := render.New()

// Is the same as the default configuration options:

r := render.New(render.Options{
    Directory: "templates",
    Asset: nil,
    AssetNames: nil,
    Layout: "",
    Extensions: []string{".tmpl"},
    Funcs: []template.FuncMap{},
    Delims: render.Delims{"{{", "}}"},
    Charset: "UTF-8",
    IndentJSON: false,
    IndentXML: false,
    PrefixJSON: []byte(""),
    PrefixXML: []byte(""),
    HTMLContentType: "text/html",
    IsDevelopment: false,
    UnEscapeHTML: false,
    StreamingJSON: false,
})

JSON vs Streaming JSON

By default, Render does not stream JSON to the http.ResponseWriter. It instead marshalls your object into a byte array, and if no errors occurred, writes that byte array to the http.ResponseWriter. This is ideal as you can catch errors before sending any data.

If however you have the need to stream your JSON response (ie: dealing with massive objects), you can set the StreamingJSON option to true. This will use the json.Encoder to stream the output to the http.ResponseWriter. If an error occurs, you will receive the error in your code, but the response will have already been sent. Also note that streaming is only implemented in render.JSON and not render.JSONP, and the UnEscapeHTML and Indent options are ignored when streaming.

Loading Templates

By default Render will attempt to load templates with a '.tmpl' extension from the "templates" directory. Templates are found by traversing the templates directory and are named by path and basename. For instance, the following directory structure:

templates/
  |
  |__ admin/
  |      |
  |      |__ index.tmpl
  |      |
  |      |__ edit.tmpl
  |
  |__ home.tmpl

Will provide the following templates:

admin/index
admin/edit
home

You can also load templates from memory by providing the Asset and AssetNames options, e.g. when generating an asset file using go-bindata.

Layouts

Render provides a yield function for layouts to access:

// ...
r := render.New(render.Options{
    Layout: "layout",
})
// ...
<!-- templates/layout.tmpl -->
<html>
  <head>
    <title>My Layout</title>
  </head>
  <body>
    <!-- Render the current template here -->
    {{ yield }}
  </body>
</html>

current can also be called to get the current template being rendered.

<!-- templates/layout.tmpl -->
<html>
  <head>
    <title>My Layout</title>
  </head>
  <body>
    This is the {{ current }} page.
  </body>
</html>

Character Encodings

Render will automatically set the proper Content-Type header based on which function you call. See below for an example of what the default settings would output (note that UTF-8 is the default, and binary data does not output the charset):

// main.go
package main

import (
    "encoding/xml"
    "net/http"

    "github.com/unrolled/render"  // or "gopkg.in/unrolled/render.v1"
)

type ExampleXml struct {
    XMLName xml.Name `xml:"example"`
    One     string   `xml:"one,attr"`
    Two     string   `xml:"two,attr"`
}

func main() {
    r := render.New(render.Options{})
    mux := http.NewServeMux()

    // This will set the Content-Type header to "application/octet-stream".
    // Note that this does not receive a charset value.
    mux.HandleFunc("/data", func(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
        r.Data(w, http.StatusOK, []byte("Some binary data here."))
    })

    // This will set the Content-Type header to "application/json; charset=UTF-8".
    mux.HandleFunc("/json", func(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
        r.JSON(w, http.StatusOK, map[string]string{"hello": "json"})
    })

    // This will set the Content-Type header to "text/xml; charset=UTF-8".
    mux.HandleFunc("/xml", func(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
        r.XML(w, http.StatusOK, ExampleXml{One: "hello", Two: "xml"})
    })

    // This will set the Content-Type header to "text/html; charset=UTF-8".
    mux.HandleFunc("/html", func(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
        // Assumes you have a template in ./templates called "example.tmpl"
        // $ mkdir -p templates && echo "<h1>Hello {{.}}.</h1>" > templates/example.tmpl
        r.HTML(w, http.StatusOK, "example", nil)
    })

    http.ListenAndServe("0.0.0.0:3000", mux)
}

In order to change the charset, you can set the Charset within the render.Options to your encoding value:

// main.go
package main

import (
    "encoding/xml"
    "net/http"

    "github.com/unrolled/render"  // or "gopkg.in/unrolled/render.v1"
)

type ExampleXml struct {
    XMLName xml.Name `xml:"example"`
    One     string   `xml:"one,attr"`
    Two     string   `xml:"two,attr"`
}

func main() {
    r := render.New(render.Options{
        Charset: "ISO-8859-1",
    })
    mux := http.NewServeMux()

    // This will set the Content-Type header to "application/octet-stream".
    // Note that this does not receive a charset value.
    mux.HandleFunc("/data", func(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
        r.Data(w, http.StatusOK, []byte("Some binary data here."))
    })

    // This will set the Content-Type header to "application/json; charset=ISO-8859-1".
    mux.HandleFunc("/json", func(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
        r.JSON(w, http.StatusOK, map[string]string{"hello": "json"})
    })

    // This will set the Content-Type header to "text/xml; charset=ISO-8859-1".
    mux.HandleFunc("/xml", func(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
        r.XML(w, http.StatusOK, ExampleXml{One: "hello", Two: "xml"})
    })

    // This will set the Content-Type header to "text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1".
    mux.HandleFunc("/html", func(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
        // Assumes you have a template in ./templates called "example.tmpl"
        // $ mkdir -p templates && echo "<h1>Hello {{.}}.</h1>" > templates/example.tmpl
        r.HTML(w, http.StatusOK, "example", nil)
    })

    http.ListenAndServe("0.0.0.0:3000", mux)
}

Integration Examples

Echo

// main.go
package main

import (
	"net/http"

	"github.com/labstack/echo"
	"github.com/unrolled/render" // or "gopkg.in/unrolled/render.v1"
)

func main() {
	r := render.New(render.Options{
		IndentJSON: true,
	})

	e := echo.New()

	// Routes
	e.Get("/", func(c *echo.Context) {
		r.JSON(c.Response, http.StatusOK, map[string]string{"welcome": "This is rendered JSON!"})
	})

	e.Run(":3000")
}

Gin

// main.go
package main

import (
    "net/http"

    "github.com/gin-gonic/gin"
    "github.com/unrolled/render"  // or "gopkg.in/unrolled/render.v1"
)

func main() {
    r := render.New(render.Options{
        IndentJSON: true,
    })

    router := gin.Default()

    router.GET("/", func(c *gin.Context) {
        r.JSON(c.Writer, http.StatusOK, map[string]string{"welcome": "This is rendered JSON!"})
    })

    router.Run(":3000")
}

Goji

// main.go
package main

import (
    "net/http"

    "github.com/zenazn/goji"
    "github.com/zenazn/goji/web"
    "github.com/unrolled/render"  // or "gopkg.in/unrolled/render.v1"
)

func main() {
    r := render.New(render.Options{
        IndentJSON: true,
    })

    goji.Get("/", func(c web.C, w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
        r.JSON(w, http.StatusOK, map[string]string{"welcome": "This is rendered JSON!"})
    })
    goji.Serve()  // Defaults to ":8000".
}

Negroni

// main.go
package main

import (
    "net/http"

    "github.com/codegangsta/negroni"
    "github.com/unrolled/render"  // or "gopkg.in/unrolled/render.v1"
)

func main() {
    r := render.New(render.Options{
        IndentJSON: true,
    })
    mux := http.NewServeMux()

    mux.HandleFunc("/", func(w http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
        r.JSON(w, http.StatusOK, map[string]string{"welcome": "This is rendered JSON!"})
    })

    n := negroni.Classic()
    n.UseHandler(mux)
    n.Run(":3000")
}

Traffic

// main.go
package main

import (
    "net/http"

    "github.com/pilu/traffic"
    "github.com/unrolled/render"  // or "gopkg.in/unrolled/render.v1"
)

func main() {
    r := render.New(render.Options{
        IndentJSON: true,
    })

    router := traffic.New()
    router.Get("/", func(w traffic.ResponseWriter, req *traffic.Request) {
        r.JSON(w, http.StatusOK, map[string]string{"welcome": "This is rendered JSON!"})
    })

    router.Run()
}

Web.go

// main.go
package main

import (
    "net/http"

    "github.com/hoisie/web"
    "github.com/unrolled/render"  // or "gopkg.in/unrolled/render.v1"
)

func main() {
    r := render.New(render.Options{
        IndentJSON: true,
    })

    web.Get("/(.*)", func(ctx *web.Context, val string) {
        r.JSON(ctx, http.StatusOK, map[string]string{"welcome": "This is rendered JSON!"})
    })

    web.Run("0.0.0.0:3000")
}

About

Go package for easily rendering JSON, XML, binary data, and HTML templates responses.

License:MIT License


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