FaberSanZ / vkd3d-proton

Fork of VKD3D. Development branches for Proton's Direct3D 12 implementation.

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VKD3D-Proton is a fork of VKD3D, which aims to implement the full Direct3D 12 API on top of Vulkan. The project serves as the development effort for Direct3D 12 support in Proton.


The original project is available at WineHQ.


Performance and game compatibility are important targets, at the expense of compatibility with older drivers and systems. Modern Vulkan extensions and features are aggressively made use of to improve game performance and compatibility. It is recommended to use the very latest drivers you can get your hands on for the best experience. Backwards compatibility with the vkd3d standalone API is not a goal of this project.


There are some hard requirements on drivers to be able to implement D3D12 in a reasonably performant way.

  • Vulkan 1.1
  • VK_EXT_descriptor_indexing with at least 1000000 UpdateAfterBind descriptors for all types except UniformBuffer. Essentially all features in VkPhysicalDeviceDescriptorIndexingFeatures must be supported.
  • VK_KHR_timeline_semaphore

Some notable extensions that should be supported for optimal or correct behavior. These extensions will likely become mandatory later.

  • VK_EXT_robustness2
  • VK_KHR_buffer_device_address
  • VK_EXT_extended_dynamic_state


For AMD, RADV is the recommended driver and the one that sees most testing on AMD GPUs. The recommendation here is to use a driver built from Git.


The Vulkan beta drivers generally contain the latest driver fixes that we identify while getting games to work. At least Linux 455.26.01 (2020-10-20) is recommended as it contains fixes for:

Reduce host memory consumption for descriptor memory when VkDescriptorSetVariableDescriptorCountAllocateInfo is used.

Fixed a bug in a barrier optimization that allowed some back-to-back copies to run unordered

These fixes should find their way into stable drivers eventually, but if you're having issues, test the latest development drivers, as that is what we test against.


We have not done any testing against Intel iGPUs yet.

Cloning the repo

To clone the repo you should run:

git clone --recursive https://github.com/HansKristian-Work/vkd3d-proton

in order to pull in all the submodules which are needed for building.

Building VKD3D-Proton


  • wine (for widl) [for native builds]
    • On Windows this may be substituted for Strawberry Perl as it ships widl and is easy to find and install -- although this dependency may be eliminated in the future.
  • Meson build system (at least version 0.49)
  • glslang compiler
  • Mingw-w64 compiler, headers and tools (at least version 7.0) [for cross-builds for d3d12.dll which are default]


The simple way

Inside the VKD3D-Proton directory, run:

./package-release.sh master /your/target/directory --no-package

This will create a folder vkd3d-master in /your/target/directory, which contains both 32-bit and 64-bit versions of VKD3D-Proton, which can be set up in the same way as the release versions as noted above.

If you want to build natively (ie. for libvkd3d-proton.so), pass --native to the build script. This option will make it build using your system's compilers.

In order to preserve the build directories for development, pass --dev-build to the script. This option implies --no-package. After making changes to the source code, you can then do the following to rebuild VKD3D-Proton:

# change to build.86 for 32-bit
ninja -C /your/target/directory/build.64 install

Compiling manually (cross for d3d12.dll, default)

# 64-bit build.
meson --cross-file build-win64.txt --buildtype release --prefix /your/vkd3d-proton/directory build.64
ninja -C build.64 install

# 32-bit build
meson --cross-file build-win32.txt --buildtype release --prefix /your/vkd3d-proton/directory build.86
ninja -C build.86 install

Compiling manually (native)

# 64-bit build.
meson --buildtype release --prefix /your/vkd3d-proton/directory build.64
ninja -C build.64 install

# 32-bit build
CC="gcc -m32" CXX="g++ -m32" \
PKG_CONFIG_PATH="/usr/lib32/pkgconfig:/usr/lib/i386-linux-gnu/pkgconfig:/usr/lib/pkgconfig" \
meson --buildtype release --prefix /your/vkd3d-proton/directory build.86
ninja -C build.86 install

Using VKD3D-Proton

The intended way to use VKD3D-Proton is as a native Win32 d3d12.dll. This serves as a drop-in replacement for D3D12, and can be used in Wine (Proton or vanilla flavors), or on Windows.

VKD3D-Proton does not supply the necessary DXGI component. VKD3D-Proton can be used with either DXVK's DXGI implementation, or Wine's DXGI implementation. VKD3D-Proton implements its own IDXGISwapChain when built as a native d3d12.dll.

A note on using VKD3D-Proton on Windows

Native Windows use is mostly relevant for developer testing purposes. Do not expect games running on Windows 7 or 8.1 to magically make use of VKD3D-Proton, as many games will only even attempt to load d3d12.dll if they are running on Windows 10.

Native Linux build

A native Linux binary can be built, but it is not intended to be compatible with upstream Wine. A native option is mostly relevant for development purposes.

Environment variables

Most of the environment variables used by VKD3D-Proton are for debugging purposes. The environment variables are not considered a part of API and might be changed or removed in the future versions of VKD3D-Proton.

Some of debug variables are lists of elements. Elements must be separated by commas or semicolons.

  • VKD3D_CONFIG - a list of options that change the behavior of vkd3d-proton.
    • vk_debug - enables Vulkan debug extensions and loads validation layer.
    • skip_application_workarounds - Skips all application workarounds. For debugging purposes.
    • force_bindless_texel_buffer - Forces use of texel buffers for bindless Raw/Structured buffers. For game workarounds only!
  • VKD3D_DEBUG - controls the debug level for log messages produced by vkd3d-proton. Accepts the following values: none, err, info, fixme, warn, trace.
  • VKD3D_SHADER_DEBUG - controls the debug level for log messages produced by the shader compilers. See VKD3D_DEBUG for accepted values.
  • VKD3D_LOG_FILE - If set, redirects VKD3D_DEBUG logging output to a file instead.
  • VKD3D_VULKAN_DEVICE - a zero-based device index. Use to force the selected Vulkan device.
  • VKD3D_DISABLE_EXTENSIONS - a list of Vulkan extensions that vkd3d-proton should not use even if available.
  • VKD3D_TEST_DEBUG - enables additional debug messages in tests. Set to 0, 1 or 2.
  • VKD3D_TEST_FILTER - a filter string. Only the tests whose names matches the filter string will be run, e.g. VKD3D_TEST_FILTER=clear_render_target. Useful for debugging or developing new tests.
  • VKD3D_TEST_PLATFORM - can be set to "wine", "windows" or "other". The test platform controls the behavior of todo(), todo_if(), bug_if() and broken() conditions in tests.
  • VKD3D_TEST_BUG - set to 0 to disable bug_if() conditions in tests.
  • VKD3D_PROFILE_PATH - If profiling is enabled in the build, a profiling block is emitted to ${VKD3D_PROFILE_PATH}.${pid}.

CPU profiling (development)

Pass -Denable_profiling=true to Meson to enable a profiled build. With a profiled build, use VKD3D_PROFILE_PATH environment variable. The profiling dumps out a binary blob which can be analyzed with programs/vkd3d-profile.py. The profile is a trivial system which records number of iterations and total ticks (ns) spent. It is easy to instrument parts of code you are working on optimizing.

Advanced shader debugging

These features are only meant to be used by vkd3d-proton developers. For any builtin RenderDoc related functionality pass -Denable_renderdoc=true to Meson.

  • VKD3D_SHADER_DUMP_PATH - path where shader bytecode is dumped. Bytecode is dumped in format of $hash.{spv,dxbc,dxil}.
  • VKD3D_SHADER_OVERRIDE - path to where overridden shaders can be found. If application is creating a pipeline with $hash and $VKD3D_SHADER_OVERRIDE/$hash.spv exists, that SPIR-V file will be used instead.
  • VKD3D_AUTO_CAPTURE_SHADER - If this is set to a shader hash, and the RenderDoc layer is enabled, vkd3d-proton will automatically make a capture when a specific shader is encountered.
  • VKD3D_AUTO_CAPTURE_COUNTS - A comma-separated list of indices. This can be used to control which queue submissions to capture. E.g., use VKD3D_AUTO_CAPTURE_COUNTS=0,4,10 to capture the 0th (first submission), 4th and 10th submissions which are candidates for capturing.

If only VKD3D_AUTO_CAPTURE_COUNTS is set, any queue submission is considered for capturing. If only VKD3D_AUTO_CAPTURE_SHADER is set, VKD3D_AUTO_CAPTURE_COUNTS is considered to be equal to "0", i.e. a capture is only made on first encounter with the target shader. If both are set, the capture counter is only incremented and considered when a submission contains the use of the target shader.

Shader logging

It is possible to log the output of replaced shaders, essentially a custom shader printf. To enable this feature, VK_KHR_buffer_device_address must be supported. First, use VKD3D_SHADER_DEBUG_RING_SIZE_LOG2=28 for example to set up a 256 MiB ring buffer in host memory. Since this buffer is allocated in host memory, feel free to make it as large as you want, as it does not consume VRAM. A worker thread will read the data as it comes in and log it. There is potential here to emit more structured information later. The main reason this is implemented instead of the validation layer printf system is run-time performance, and avoids any possible accidental hiding of bugs by introducing validation layers which add locking, etc. Using debugPrintEXT is also possible if that fits better with your debugging scenario. With this shader replacement scheme, we're able to add shader logging as unintrusive as possible.

Replaced shaders will need to include debug_channel.h from include/shader-debug. Use glslc -I/path/to/vkd3d-proton/include/shader-debug --target-env=vulkan1.1 when compiling replaced shaders.


is used somewhere in your replaced shader. This should be initialized with gl_GlobalInvocationID or similar. This ID will show up in the log. For each subgroup which calls DEBUG_CHANNEL_INIT, an instance counter is generated. This allows you to correlate several messages which all originate from the same instance counter, which is logged alongside the ID. An invocation can be uniquely identified with the instance + DEBUG_CHANNEL_INIT id. DEBUG_CHANNEL_INIT can be called from non-uniform control flow, as it does not use barrier() or similar constructs. It can also be used in vertex and fragment shaders for this reason.

void DEBUG_CHANNEL_MSG(uint v0);
void DEBUG_CHANNEL_MSG(uint v0, uint v1, ...); // Up to 4 components, can be expanded as needed up to 16.
void DEBUG_CHANNEL_MSG(int v0);
void DEBUG_CHANNEL_MSG(int v0, int v1, ...); // Up to 4 components, ...
void DEBUG_CHANNEL_MSG(float v0);
void DEBUG_CHANNEL_MSG(float v0, float v1, ...); // Up to 4 components, ...

These functions log, formatting is #%x for uint, %d for int and %f for float type.

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Fork of VKD3D. Development branches for Proton's Direct3D 12 implementation.



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